One of the most difficult set of issues for the PNG state and society to manage in the 40 years since independence has been those related to Bougainville and its place within PNG. The most difficult issues involved the violent conflict from 1988 to 1997, resolved by the complex political settlement contained in the Bougainville Peace Agreement (BPA) of 2001, given effect to by the comprehensive amendments to the PNG Constitution in 2002. An examination of Bougainville’s place in PNG in 2015 is particularly appropriate as the autonomy arrangements under the BPA have been operating for 10 years and can therefore be evaluated. Also, a five year window within which a referendum for Bougainvilleans on the future political status of Bougainville must be held begins in mid-2015. As such, the challenges involved in a Constitution requiring a vote on independence for a part of the country can also be considered.