IB 2022/04 Intractable Barriers to Women’s Election in Tonga
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In Brief 2022/04 Intractable Barriers to Women’s Election in Tonga
In this In Brief the authors consider lessons learned in the aftermath of women candidates’ defeat in the 18 November 2021 general election. They identify five intractable barriers to women’s election in Tonga: voters’ expectations of reciprocity in exchange for electoral support; deeply entrenched perceptions of men’s legitimacy as political leaders; untimely support for women candidates; an inhospitable political environment for electoral gender quotas; and a lack of accountability on gender equality commitments.